The South African
Military History Society

Die Suid-Afrikaanse Krygshistoriese Vereniging

Military History Journal
Vol 2 No 5 - June 1973

Cape Colonial Volunteer Corps


Part 1 of this article appeared in vol. 2, no. 4, December 1972.

MALMESBURY VOLUNTEER CAVALRY 1856-1866 including the Darling Cavalry.
The two corps are often referred to separately, no doubt for geographical reasons, but seem officially to have formed one unit.
The Malmesbury Cavalry is dealt with in G.N. 337 of 1/10/1857.

1. Darling Troop
Colonel Commandant John Rainier (30/9/1856. Date of enrolment: 10/9/1856. Regulations approved 30/9/1856 and strength (on 21/9/1857), 27. Officers: Capt. Marthinus Versveld (30/9/1856); Lt William Duckitt (25/9/1856); Adj. and QM. Charles Becker (30/9/1856); Surgeon C. P. Borcherds, M.D. (25/9/1856).

2. Malmesbury Troop
Date of enrolment, 8 October, 1856; Regulations approved 24 January, 1857; Strength (on 21st September, 1857), 28; Officers: Capt. Louis Anthing; Lt. Thomas John Eaton; Adj and Q.M. Charles Becker; Surgeon C. P. Borcherds (all appointed on 23 September, 1837).

In October, 1836, the Darling Cavalry (i.e. troop) was reported as nearly 60 strong with the following officers elected: Capt. M. Versveld, J.P.; Lt M. de Goede; Cornet J. van Reenen; Q.M. and Secretary, C. J. Becker; Sgts F. Duckitt, Jnr and D. van Reenen (C.M. 25/10/1856). The Corps was expected at the Wynberg review on 24 March, 1857 (C.M. 18/3/1857).

The Malmesbury troop was reported in existence in March, 1857, but not at the Review (C.A. 23/3/1857); the whole Corps, 60, expected at the Stellenbosch Review as the Malmesbury and Hopefield Cavalry (C.A. and C.M. 19/9/1857). On 23 September, the Corps was presented with a set of colours by Mrs Rainier, the wife of the Civil Commissioner (who was O.C. and who paid for them) (C.A. 30/9/57). The Corps was given seniority after the Paarl Rifle Corps (G.N. 337 of 1/10/1857). Six officers and 30 men attended a Review on 7 October, 1857 (C.M. 10/10/1857).

In August, 1859, 11 members resigned in protest at the recall of Sir George Grey (C.A. 18/8/1859) and the Corps assembled at Cape Town to bid him farewell (C.A. 11/8/1860). In September, noted as having a muster once a month, absentees being fined. A few paraded in Cape Town for Prince Alfred’s return (C.A. 11/9/1860). 60 strong at a Review on 24 April, 1861 (C.M. 25/4/1861).

The Blue Book gives the following returns at the end of each year: 1861 — 61 strong; 1863 — 40: 1864 — 37 with only Rainier, Duckitt and Eaton, as officers; 1865 — 37. In 1866 the Blue Book notes “The Civil Commissioner reports that the Malmesbury and Darling Cavalry has apparently ceased to exist.'

The Blue Book provides the following facts: 1839: Strength 20; Comdt A. Henderson and Capt H. Mosenthal. 1860: Strength 15. The same officers. 1861: Disbanded.

The Corps was enrolled on 4 February, 1857, regulations were approved on 14 May, 1837, and the strength on 9 September, 1857, was 55. Officer appointments all dated from 16 April, 1837, and were: Comdt Petrus Johannes Woest: Capt John T. Ferreira; Lts Hendrik Barend Fick and Cornelius Johannes Muller and Q.M. Anthony M. Muller. The Corps was granted seniority after the Port Elizabeth Rifle Corps (G.N. 337 of 1/10/1857). The first muster took place at Alexandria 'in Scotch plaid dress and properly armed’. Total effective strength four officers and 63 men (C.A. 30/9/1857). The initial meeting to form the Corps took place on 4 February, 1857, presided over by the Magistrate, W. F. Liddle (C.M. 18/2/1857). Annual returns in the Blue Book give the following details: 1839: Strength 55. 1860: Strength 43. 1861: Strength 43, with P. J. Woest, H. J. Frick and Lt J. van Nickerk as officers.

PAARL RIFLE CORP’s (1856-1862?)
Formed in September, 1856, the Paarl Rifle Corps was doing well by January, 1857, with Sgt Donnelly, late 73rd Foot, as Drill Instructor, and with a band under J. A. de Villiers, which played the Paarl Rifle March, specially composed by one de Keller (C.A. 3/1/1857), who refused to attend a Review at Rondebosch in March, 1857, and the Corps was perforce without a band (C.A. 21/3/1857). In September it was resolved to form a cavalry section to co-operate with the Drakenstein Cavalry (C.A. 16/9/1857). Official information (C.A. 23/9/l857) was as follows:

a) Infantry Division
Colonel Commandant K. N. van Breda; Major Joseph J. de Villiers: Lt and Adj Jeremias de Villiers; Q.M. Septimus J. Gird; Surgeon Rudolph Zeederberg, all of whom were appointed on 10 September, 1856, the date of enrolment. Strength on 9 September, 1857 - 50.

b) Cavalry Division
Date of enrolment: 10 September, 1857; regulations approved on 21 Septemrber, 1837. Officers were Capt. William Haupt; Adjutant Henry Warden, and Cornet G. de Wet, all appointed on 10 September, 1857.

In November, the Paarl public subscribed £30 for new band instruments (C.A. 21/11/1857). On 7 October, six officers and 30 men attended a Review at Stellenbosch (C.M. 10/10/1857). In November, 1858, an election took place with Capt. Proctor promoted to Major, vice le Brun; Lt de Villiers to Capt, vice Proctor, and D. Hubner to Lt vice de Villiers. Numbers were decreasing fast with six officers and 12 men attending monthly drills, but a band 22 strong, bigger and better then than that of any other corps (C.M. 1/12/1858). Absent from a Review in the Cape on 30 March, 1839 (C.A. 31/3/1859). On April 14, 1859, a majority at a meeting voted in favour of disbandment (C.A. l4/4/1859), but the Corps was present at a Review on 30 March the following year (C.A. 31/3/1860). In August the Corps, plus band, was on parade under Capt Proctor to welcome Prince Alfred (C.A. 4/8/1860). On 3 December, the band serenaded Sir George Grey at his hotel in Paarl (C.A. 6/12/1860).

In 1859, the Corps underwent reorganisation as the United Paarl Volunteers, after a revival movement to form another corps proposed to be called Grey’s Own or the Independent Paarl Rifle Corps (C.M. 27/7/1859)(1)

The new unit elected officers: J. J. Proctor as Capt and C.O.; J. J. de Villiers as Lt and Adj., and D. M. Minnaar as Sgt (C.A. 30/7/59 and C.M. of same date). The re-organised corps attended the opening of the Lady Grey Bridge at Fransch Hoek in August, 1859 (C.A. 18/8/1859; C.M. 17/8/1859). On 7 October, they attended a Volunteer Review. At the end of the year they were 25 strong (CC BB). In May, 1860 the Corps celebrated thc Queen’s Birthday under Capt Izak de Villiers (C.M. 26/5/l860), and at the end of 1861 were still 25 strong (CC BB).

Meeting called for 27 July, 1861, by Capt Chapman to form a volunteer naval brigade (C.A. 23/7/1861). Apparently he had had some experience as commander of a naval brigade in India (G.M. 23/7/1861). At the meeting 50 were enrolled and Chapman was elected Commanding Officer, with Capt Wheatland as second-in-command and Meller as 3rd Officer. Honorary members were also enrolled (C.A. 3/8/1861), quoting a report from Port Elizabeth dated 29 July).

Numbers rose to 70 in mid—August and to nearly 100 later in the month (C.A. 17 and 31/8/1861). Admiral Sir Baldwin Walker was invited to become Commodore and subsequently refused (G.M. 3/9/1861). Progress continued and the Corps turned out when the 'Barbadoes’ came ashore (C.A. 24/9/1861). A tender for clothing by Thomas Staines was accepted, and Dr Rubidge was elected as Medical Officer. Chapman reported having collected £100. Dely was elected Lt and adj (G.M. 28/8/l86l). Edward S. Kemsley was elected paymaster and the Corps was meeting regularly for drill in the stores of Wheatland and Smith (C.A. 1/10/1861). The Corps was inspected by the Lieut-Governor who said he would sanction formation and try to have small arms and heavy guns supplied (C.A. 12/11/861).

There were reports later that all was not well and there was a move to get rid of Capt Chapman as unsuitable. Lt Simpson, RN., or W. Fleming, would be chosen in command (C.A. 3/5/1862). (Corps very anxious to get hold of the Armstrong guns, intended to protect shipping.

The Corps was later attached to the Port Elizabeth Volunteer Artillery, but kept its distinctive features. Petition to the Governor to remove the commanding officer, Capt Chapman, (C.A. 24/6/1862). The Corps was not mentioned in the Blue Book. (2)

Formation was proposed in January, 1860, with officers: Capt M. E. Kemp; 1st Lt A. Wilmont; 2nd Lt. C. T. Jones; Lt and Adj J. Monckton; Sgts C. Herbert; H. N. Chase; F. Thompson; H. M. H. Orpen (C.A. 14/1/1860). On 10 February, the Corps met its Colonel F. B. Pinney, and was reported to be making rapid progress at gun drill. Large numbers of mechanics and working men had enlisted (C.A. 16/2/1860). The Lieut-Governor would assist Corps to get side-arms and the Navy would try to supply the Corps with blue serge for uniforms. Strength about 70 (C.A. 23/2/1860).

Officer appointments appeared in the Gazette of 6 March, 1860: Lt-Col Francis Bertrand Pinney; Capt Mathew Ebenezer Kemp; First Lt Alex Wilmot; 2nd Lt Charles Jones; Lt and Adj John Monckton; Surgeon Charles Housley; Chaplain Rev. W. A. Robinson. Gun exercise was noted in March, 1860, with two weapons horsed (C.A. 8/3/1860 from P.E. Herald), and a salute was fired for Prince Alfred later in the year (C.M. 15/8/1860). (Strength at the end of 1860 was 54), (CC BB).

On 17 January, 1861, the Corps fired a 17-gun salute in honour of the Governor during his visit to Port Elizabeth (C.M. 26/1/1861). Saluting was rehearsed in May (C.M. 25/5/1861), and the Corps did field practice on 2 November, 1861, at a Volunteer Review (C.A. 5/11/1861). Strength at the end of 1861 was 62 (CC BB).

On 3 February, 1862. Kemp offered the services of the Corps to the Colonial Secretary, and asked for four 32-pr howitzers with shell, as larger guns were required than those held at the time. He also suggested the construction of sand batteries and offered to do the work with government assistance (C.A. 11/2/1862). In March, a band was being formed (C.A. 13/3/1862) and in April the Corps held a fête to raise funds (G.M. 17/4/1862). On 8 July, 1862, the House of Assembly voted funds for the purchase of horses in 1863 (C.A. 10/7/1862). Kemp resigned in September (C.A. 4/9/1862), and was succeeded in October by H. Rutherford (C.A. 30/10/1862). In September, Monckton was appointed instructor at £50 pa. (C.A. 4/10/1862). Strength at the end of the year was 45 (CC BB). 1863 saw falling numbers, particularly after Kemp's resignation (C.A. 5/5/1863), but the band was doing well (C.A. 10/11/1863).

In January, 1864, the Corps fired a salute for the Governor during his visit to Port Elizabeth, but was only able to man two guns for lack of numbers (C.A. 2/2/1864). Practice took place on 5/11/1864 (C.A. 8/11/1864). On 16 April that year, Lt-Gen. Douglas had written to the Secretary of State for War advising that the Corps should be encouraged. In January, 1865, the Volunteer Report by Colonel Bisset exempted the P.E.V.A. from censure and advised that an N.C.O., RN, was drill instructor to the Corps (C.A. 14/2/65).

The Commercial Union Insurance Company instructed its agent, M. E. Kemp, to present a silver bugle to the value of £20, to the Corps for assistance which it had rendered at fires. (C.A. 3/10/1863).

Strengths were: 1863, 61; 1864, 63; 1865, 27: 1866, 21: 1867, 36: 1868, 35; 1869, 32; 1870, 18; 1871, 19; 1872, 13; 1873, 13; 1874, 9; 1875, 9. Disbanded in 1876.

Raising was proposed at a meeting on 12 June, 1861, and a committee elected, consisting of H. G. Simpson; W. Smith; George Reed; P. Bayley; A. Barsdorp; C. B. Hughes; J. C. Robertshaw and I. S. Gordon (C.M. 25/6/1861). At the end of June, 50 names had been collected (C.M. 2/7/1861) and Simpson accepted command in August (C.A. 3/8/1861). Not mentioned in the Blue Book.

Noted in the Blue Book for 1860. Strength: 9. Officers: Col J. C. Borcherds; Capt S. C. Greeff; Lt J. W. Louw; Surgeon J. van Dolderen. Disbanded in 1261.

Meeting late August, 1860, at King William’s Town, at which 50-60 enrolled. Officers elected: Major J. Peterson: Capt F. Schermbrucker; Lt and Adj G. A. Wanckel; Lt C. H. Muller. Col. Maclean had been asked to accept colonelcy but had not replied (C.A. 15/9/1860). Tenders for uniform were called for 10 September; green tunics, trousers and caps.

Raising proposed at King William’s Town in August, 1860. Proposed officers: Colonel John Maclean, C.B.; Lt-Col R. Taylor, R.M.; Capt M. B. Shaw; Lts W. Hewetson and J. F. Lonsdale; Cornet and Q.M. Edward James; Surgeon: James Peters, RN.; Sgt. Major: R. Hood. Three Sergeants and four Corporals. Numbers reported to be about 50 (C.A. 8/9/1860). The meeting was aware of the proposed formation of the German Infantry Corps under Petersen.

The subject of uniform provided disagreement. Some wanted blue trousers with white stripe, blue tunic and helmet, others jack boots, spurs, blue trousers and black tunics (C.A. 13/9/1860). Eventually the Corps decided on blue trousers, blue t’unics, blue cap, with silk gold-colour band round it, for the men, and a gold band for the officers. Trousers to have a white stripe (C.A. 15/9/1860).

Mentioned first in 1861, when formation had been announced in January. The Free Press reported that Volunteering was not popular in the town (C.A. 12/1/1861). The Corps was at a field day in March (C.A. 16/3/1861) and in April, the circuit judge, Mr. Justice Bell, was escorted into town by the Corps (C.A. 27/4/1861).

In July, the Corps shot for a sword and belt presented by Capt. Parker. Won by Pte R. Eva with three shots at 200 yards. A school of arms was to be established in connection with the Corps (C.M. 27/7/1861). In August, the Corps presented a belt and pouch to Adjutant Weston (C.A. 25/8/1861). Not mentioned in the Blue Book.

QUEEN’S TOWN RIFLES (1860-1864?)
The Civil Commissioner took the lead to form a Corps in March, 1860 and got 30 names (C.M. 31/3/1860). Officers were appointed in June: Charles Duncan Griffith as Comdt; Thomas Bentley as Capt and Thomas Webster as Lt (C.A. 23/6/1860). Strength on 31 December, 1860, was 34 (CC BB).

Attended a field day in March, 1861 (C.A. l6/3/1861) and monthly parades on 29 June (C.M. 13/7/1861) and 7 September, when a dress sword was presented to Bentley (C.M. 29/3/1861). In January, John Hemming and Frederick Hamilton Jones were appointed Lieuts (C.M. 9/1/l861). Strength at the end of 1861 was 44 with Bentley as Commanding Officer (CC BB). At a meeting in January, l862, Hemming reported the Corps had £62-10-0 available for the import of Calisher and Terry’s breech-loading carbines (C.A. 18/1/1862). Hemming resigned at the end of 1864 (C.A. 31/12/1864).

Initial meeting on 25 October, 1857, elected a committee of Rutherfoord, Brink, Leeb, Boyes and Middleton to draw rules for discussion at a general meeting (G.M. 7/11/l857). Official date of enrolment was 27 December, 1857, with a strength of 18 officers. Comdt James Walker; Capt R. Rutherfoord; 1st Lt and Adj. M. M. Tait; 2nd Lt and Q.M. J. S. Brink (C.M. 20/2/1858). The Corps paraded under Rutherfoord on 21 July, 1858, for the arrival of the new Resident Magistrate (C.M. 7/8/1858). Strength at the end of 1859 was 18 and the officers were Comdt: J. Blake; Lts: M. M. Tait and L. Boyes; Ensign: J. J. Rademeyer (CC BB). The position at the end of 1860 was 19 strong and officers: Comdt Blake; Capt A. (?R.) Rutherfoord; Cornet Rademeyer; Lt and Adj. Tait; Q.M. J. S. Brink. Disbanded in 1861.

Raised in 1860 with a strength at the end of the year of 46 (CC BB). Officers appointed in the Gazette of 20 November 1860 were: Comdt James R. Innes; Capt Roelof Johannes Theunissen; 1st Lt Samuel Melville; 2nd Lt John Becker; Paymaster George Rex Duthie; Adj Alexander Smith; Q.M. Gysbert Reitz. The Blue Book notes also Surgeon G. Pronk. Uniforms were expected in January, 1861 (C.M. 5/1/1861), but the Corps was languishing by the end of the year (C.A. 26/12/1861). Capt Theunissen and five members shot for Prince Alfred’s Rifle (C.M. 9/1/1862). Strength at the end of each year were as follows: 1862, 46; 1863, 46; 1864, 46. Lt S. Melville became C.O. in 1863. Disbanded in 1865.

Attempts to start a Corps in 1859 were not successful (C.M. 10/9/1859), but apparently succeeded in 1860. Three officers and 10 bandsmen attended the funeral of a member in November (C.M. 21/11/l860) and, in December, the Rifles were on parade for a visit from the Governor on 11 December, 1860 (C.M. 15/12/1860; C.A. l3/l2/1860).

Officer appointments gazetted were: Robertson Company: Joseph le Brun, as Comdt; Mauritz Herman Pollack, as Capt; Henry George Wilmot, as Lt; Arthur Benzies, as 2nd Lt. Montagu Company: Michael Kannemeyer, as Capt; George Bucket, as 1st Lt; Frederick Phipps, as 2nd Lt; William John Gregan, as Q.M.; Frederick A. Hauf, as Surgeon (C.A. 23/3/l86l).

On 12 June the Robertson men took the oath of allegiance and accepted the Governor’s rules without alteration (C.A. 29/6/1861; CM. 29/6/1861). The band was reported to be improving.

The Blue Book return at 31 December, 1861, reads: 1st Company (Robertson): 44 strong; Capt M. B. Polack; Lts H. Wilmot and A. Benzies. 2nd Company (Montague): 30 strong; Capt M. Kannemeyer; Adj T. Cairncross; Q.M. G. Gregan; Surgeon F. A. Hauff; Lts H. Burkett and F. Phipps.

At 31 December, 1862, the 1st Company (Robertson) had been disbanded and the 2nd had a strength of 30 with Kannemeyer, Cairncross and Phipps as officers. No mention of the Corps after 1863.

Raised in November, 1859, as No. 5 company of the Cape Royal Rifles under Capt Robert Granger, and equipped with smooth-bore muskets. Had two pipers on strength and uniform was described as mixed. In October, 1861, the Corps broke away from the C.R.R. and served in the Table Bay batteries during the Trent incident scare. The Corps received a bad report in 1864, and was disbanded in 1866. (For full details see Africana Notes and News, Vol. 14,p. 266ff)

Raised probably in July, 1857, resulting from a meeting held on 6 July (C.A. 87/1857) to form a Corps to act with the Wynberg and Simon’s Town Cavalry. Exact date of raising not established, but the Corps appears in the Governor’s list (C.A. 23/9/1857, as 19 strong on 9 September and with Lt H. M. Anderson as Commanding Officer and Fleetwood Churchill as Surgeon. Departure of the regulars to India in August caused great activity at gun drill (C.M. 15/8/1857). One officer and 10 men attended a Review at Stellenbosch on 7 October (G.M. 10/10/1857), and the previous month they attended a field day with the Wynberg Cavalry and the C.R.R. (C.A. 15/9/1857). By December they had a uniform (C.A. 30/12/1857).

Attended a Review at Claremont on 30 March, 1859 (C.M. 2/4/1859) and the funeral of Lt D. Reid, Bengal Engineers in June (C.A. 14/6/1859). On 31 December, 1859, the Corps was 20 strong under Lt G. R. Budge (CC BB). On 30 March, 1860, they were at a review (C.A 31/3/1860). On 24 July fired a salute for the visit of Prince Alfred to Simon’s Town (C.A. 28/7/1860), and in September fired a Royal salute in the absence of the Regulars (C.A. 3/9/1860). Disbanded in 1861.

A move to form the Corps was made in January, 1862 (C.M. 9/1/1862) and, in February, it was reported as strong, having taken in the members of the disbanded Artillery and the Wynberg and Simon’s Town Cavalry (C.M. 4/2/1862). Government approval was forthcoming and officers appointed were: Capt G. W. Browning; 1st Lt P. D. Martin and 2nd Lt E. L’Estrange Disney (C.M. 2O/12/1862). Tenders were called for, for uniform. Long Enfield Rifles were ordered (C.A. 3/2/l862).

Services of the Corps were accepted on 3 February, 1862, and the uniform was approved as a dark grey tunic with waist belt; peg-top trousers with leggings; Garibaldi felt hat with feather, and the usual cap and ammunition pouch (C.A. 6/2/1862).

The Corps attended a Review at Stellenbosch on October under Disney (C.A. 9/lO/l862). Disney was promoted to Lieut, vice Martin and Richard England Aston M.D., as 2nd Lt, vice Disney, on 18 November, 1862 (C.A. of date). Strength on 31 December, 1862, was 50, with officers: Capt G. W. Browning; Lts Disney and R. E. Orton; Surgeon Churchill (CC BB). The Corps paraded in May, 1863, for the Prince of Wales's marriage celebrations (C.A. 21/5/1863), and attended a Review at Stellenbosch on 7 October, 1864 (C.A. 14/2/1864). It received a fair report in that year from the Imperial inspecting officer (C.A. -/3/1865). At the end of 1865 strength was 39 and the acting officer commanding, Lt J. B. Morris (CC BB). Disbanded in 1866.

Twenty-five likely to be present at a Review at Stellenbosch in October, 1857 (C.A. 19/9/1857). Twenty-four under Sgt Lindsay fired a salute on 7 October, 1857 (C.A. 10/1/01857). Noted in the House of Assembly debate on 7 June, 1859, as having very small guns (C.A. 11/6/1859). Mentioned in March, 1862 (CA. 27/3/1862). Not mentioned in the Blue Book.

The initial meeting to form the Corps was held on 19 January, 1856 (C.M. 23/1/1856). Officers were elected in February: C. L. Neethling as Captain; H. C. Hugo as 1st Lt; P. H. Faure as 2nd Lt; J. G. Mader as Adjutant and J. C. N. Marais as Q.M. (C.M. 20/2/1856). Apparently it was initially agreed to have cavalry and infantry and for most of its existence the Corps consisted of both arms. The Corps was present at a Review at Wynberg on 24 March, 1857, wearing light brown helmets (C.M. 25/3/l857). According to the list of Volunteer Corps published by order of the Governor in 1857, details of the unit were as follows: Stellenbosch Volunteer Rifle Corps. Colonel-Commandant David Johannes van Rvneveld, 11 August, 1857.
(a) Infantry Division: Date of enrolment, 9 February, 1856. Date of approval of regulations, 7 April, 1856. Numerical strength on 2 September, 1857, 58. Officers: Captain Christiaan L. Neethling, 9 February, 1856; Lt Hendrik Hugo, 9 February, 1856; Lt Robert James Crozier, 11 August, 1857; Surgeon Ernst Ludwig Schroeder, 1 October, 1856.

(b) Cavalry Division (4): Numerical strength on 2 September 1857, 30. Officers: Captain Rudolph Cloete Jurgens, 3 December, 1856; Lt Willem Johannes Herold, 3 December 1856; Cornet Phillippus Alb Myburgh, 3 December, 1856; Adjutant Johann Godlieb Mader, 9 February, 1856; Q.M. Jan Christiaan N. Marais, 9 February, 1856; Surgeon Jacob Versveld, 3 December, 1856 (C.A. 23/91857).

By April, 1857, the Corps also had a band (C.M. 8/4/1857 and attended a Review at Stellenbosch on 7 October. One Comdt, six officers and 20 men strong (C.M. 10/10/1857). The Corps attended Reviews at Cape Town on 30 March and 7 October, 1859 (C.A. 31/3/1859 and 11/10/1859). At 31 December, 1859, the Corps is called Stellenbosch Rifles; no strength return. Comdt D. J. van Ryneveld (CC BB 1859).

In January, 1860, Hugo resigned and R. Crozier was elected Captain. J. C. N. Marais was elected Lt in Crozier’s place, and H. Schröeder, 2nd Lt. Infantry totalled 94 (C.A. 2/2/1860). The Corps attended a volunteer Review at Cape Town on 30 March, 1860 (C.A. 3l/3/1860), was on parade for Prince Alfred’s visit to Stellenbosch in August (C.A. 4/8,1860), and for the Governor on 1 December (C.A. 6/12/60). Corps totalled 75 at the end of l860 (CC BB). The band was expected at a church bazaar at Somerset West in April, 1861 (C.A. 30/3/1861). Strength at the end of 1861 was 70 (CC BB). On 12 May, 1862, the Corps held an exercise at Stellenbosch with the Cape Volunteer Engineers (C.M. 13/5/1862) with Capt Crozier in command. Attended a Review at Stellenbosch on 8 October (C.M. 9/10/1862). Strength at the end of the year was 75 (CC BB). During 1863, the Cavalry division was disbanded and, the end of the year, numbers were 26 with Crozier and Mader the only officers (CC BB). At the end of 1864 strength had dropped to 20 and during 1865 the Corps was disbanded (CC BB 1865). When inspected in February, 1864, van Ryneveld told the inspecting officer that he was unable to assemble the men. The arms were rusty and obsolete (C.A. 14/2/1865).

The Blue Book for 1860 reports strength at the end the year as 24 and the officers as Comdt W. T. L. Emmett; Capt W. H. Bates and Lt L. H. Meurant, Jnr. During l862 the Corps was reformed (CC BB) and, in February, the Governor appointed William T. L. Emmett as Capt; William H. Bates as Lt, and George Meurant as Cornet (C.A. 15/2/1862). Strength at 31 December was 35 (CC BB) Noted as disbanded in 1865 (CC BB).

Raised in 1856. Details, published by order of th Governor in September, 1857, reveal: Enrolled: 18 June, 1856; Regulations approved: 31 July, 1856; Strength at 2 September, 1857; 37. Officers: Capt Hamilton Hodgson, 18 June, 1856; Lt Jacobus Johannes Steyn, 18 June, 1856; Lt Frederick J. van der Riet, 18 June, 1856; Q.M. Jan Hendrick Fick, 18 June, 1856 (C.A. 23/9/1857).

Twenty-five were to attend a Review at Stellenhosch in September, 1857 (C.A. 23/9/1857), although in March the Corps was reported as moribund with the officers taking no interest, only seven men attending parades, fines for absence not being collected, and the Corps being the laughing stock of the town (C.M. 28/3/1857). Apparently none attended the Stellenbosch Review in October, being in a bad way (CM. 3/10/1857).

In March, 1858, the Corps was called out to search for runaway Kaffir labourers and had no success (C.M. 27/3/1858). According to a letter, the commanding officer had left without notice, the drill master had been dismissed for drunkenness and the Corps continued to be in a bad state (C.M. 5/5/1858), although on the Queen’s Birthday 10 men paraded without officers and fired a feu de joie (C.M. 2/6/1858).

Strength at the end of 1859 was 37 and the officers were Lts J. J. Steyn and F. J. van der Riet (CC BB). Matters improved in 1860 at the prospect of Prince Alfred’s visit (C.A. 26/5/1860) and the mounting of a guard-of-honour was discussed. In August the Corps held a shoot in honour of the Prince's birthday (C.A. 11/8/1860) and, in September 30 members attended a meeting at which C. van Oudtshoorn, the Civil Commissioner, was elected to command, and Falck, as Quartermaster. It was resolved that there be a monthly muster, that a permanent court-martial be set up to handle absentees and that the Corps rules be printed (Overberg Courant 5/9/1860). Thirty-two attended a muster later in September, waiting for 20 Government rifles (C.A. 15/9/ 1860). In October attendances went up to 40 and target practice was held (C.A. 13/10/1860). Details at the end of the year were: Strength, 60. Comdt G. V. van Oudtshoorn; Capt F.J. van der Riet; Lts J.G. Emmett and J.J. Barry; Q.M. J. Falck; Adjutant B. Duff (5) (CC BB). The new officer appointments were gazetted on 5 June, 1860.

In February, 1861, arms and accoutrements were received from the Government (C.A. 23/2/1861). A meeting on 15 March to elect NCOs was not harmonious (C.A. 23/3/1861). In June, 50 attended the monthly muster, drill had improved and numbers were increasing. Members of the band had been enrolled as honorary members (C.A. 15/6/1861). In September, van Oudtshoorn resigned from command as the Corps was not entitled, under the new regulations, to be commanded by an officer of higher rank than Captain (C.M. 7/9/1861). In December, only 12 paraded and a meeting was called to consider disbandment .Apparently the main problem was the band (C.A. 14/12/1861). Twenty attended on 20 December and resolved that the Corps continue, that the arms and accoutrements be returned to the Government. Lt Barry agreed to furnish rifles. The band instruments were returned to the C.O. (C.A. 28/12/1861). During July, 1861, there was a move to get the ladies to present a flag. Strength at the end of 1861 was 39, and the CO. was F. J. van der Riet, with L. Wright as Surgeon (CC BB). In June, 1862, a move to resuscitate the Corps was approved (C.M. 14/6/1862) and, in July, amended rules were approved by tbe Governor although the Corps refused to accept Government issue arms (C.A. 29/7/1862). Apparently disbanded in 1862.

Noted in the Blue Book for 1859 as Uitenhage Irregular Horse, 70 strong at the end of the year. Officers were: Comdt J. C. Chase; Capt E. J. Smith; Lt P. van Niekerk; Lt J. F. Rawstomnc and Surgeon F. Ensor. Officers changed in 1860 and the following appointments were announced in December. Colonel Commanding, John Centlivres Chase; Captain Edward James Smith; 1st Lt John Henry Tennant; 2nd Lt and Adjutant Robert Smith (C.M. 1/12/1860, CC BB 1860). Strength at the end of 1860 was 70.

In August, 1861, the Corps was due to exercise at Uitenhage with the Port Elizabeth Volunteer Artillery (C.A. 10/8/1861). In October, Capt E. Smith resigned and was replaced by Frederick Lange (C.A. and C.M. 14/11/1861). In December, the ladies had subscribed £35 to buy a silver bugle for presentation to the Corps (C.M. 10/12/1861). At the end of the year, the Corps is noted as the Uitenhage Volunteer Cavalry, strength 33, with Chase, Lange and Tenant as officers CC BE). In March, 1862, John Edward Dyer was appointed surgeon in place of Frederick Ensor (C.M. l/3/l862).(6) The silver bugle was presented to the Corps on 24 May, 1862, the Queen’s Birthday (C.A. 3/6/1862) (6). Strength at the end of 1863, 35, and at the end of 1864, 25. Disbanded in 1865 (CC BB).

On 31 December, 1860, 30 strong. Officers: Capt P. Davies; Lts T. A. Gumming and E. T. Cooper; Q.M. J. B. Temlett (CC BB). On 31 December, 1861 and 1862, 30 strong, with Lt T. A. Gumming in command. Not mentioned after 1862.

Blue Book returns as at 31 December give the following details: 1859: Victoria Mounted Rifles. Strength not stated. Officers: Capt W. H. Auret; Lts J. M. Horak and W. G. Walton; Surgeon T. Fotheringham. 1860: Strength, 19; 1861 : Strength, 28. 1862-1864: Victoria West Mounted Rifles. Strength, 28. No change in officers. 1865: Disbanded.

Initial details were published in September, 1857: Worcester Volunteer Burgher Corps. Enrolled: 18 March, 1856. Regulations approved 29 March, 1856. Strength on 1 September, 1857, 72. Officers: Comdt J. G. van H. Tulleken, 3 May, 1856; Capt Cornelius Beck, 16 May, 1856; J. W. H. Meiring, 16 May, 1856; Lt George Quin, 16 May, 1856; Q.M. Johannes D. Hugo, 3 May, 1856; Surgeon Michiel J. Kuys, 3 May, 1856; Surgeon Louis William Glaeser, 3 May, 1856 (C.A. 23/9/1857). Sixty attended a muster on 12 September, 1857. The Chief Constable, Tyers, was drill master (C.M. 12/9/1857). Three officers and 32 men attended the Volunteer Review at Stellenbosch on 7 October, 1857 (C.M. 10/10/1857).

On 31 December, 1859, the Corps is noted as having a cavalry division. Details of the annual return show: Comdt J. G. van H. Tulleken.
(a) Cavalry Division: Capt J. W. H. Meiring; Lt T. T. Heatlie; Cornet A.J. Barker; Surgeon M. J. Kuys.
(b) Infantry Division: Capt C. Beck; Lt J. P. van Reenen; Surgeon L. Glaeser (CC BB).

The Corps planned to be on parade for the Visit of Prince Alfred (C.A. 26/6/1860). In December, the Governor was met by an escort of the cavalry under Capt Meiring, all in uniform, with swords, and was escorted to the Hex River and back (C.A. 11/12/1860 and 13/12/1860). On arrival at the hotel, the Governor was received by the rest of the Corps with band (C.A. 11/12/1860). Strength at the end of 1860 was 72 (CC BB). No change at the end of 1861. No return was submitted in 1862 and in 1863 the Corps is marked as disbanded (CC BB).

Enrolled on 3O June, l857; regulations approved l4 July, 1857; strength on 9 September, 1857, 30. Officers were: Capt Rudolph Cloete, 30 June, 1857; Lt Alex van Breda, 30 June, 1857; Lt Patrick Dugald Martin, 20 August, 1857; Adj Daniel Cloete, 30 June, 1857; Q.M. Johan George Rathfelder, 30 June, 1857 (IC A. 23/9/1857).

The first muster took place on 15 July, 1857, at Rathfelder’s Inn where the Corps was drilled on foot by Adjutant Rennie, C.R.R. Next parade to be mounted (C.M. 16/7/1857). At the second parade on 21 July at Rathfelder’s, 15 appeared in uniform; black jacket, braided on the chest, twist shoulder-knots, half red collar, red cuffs; Oxford mixture pantaloons with red stripe down the sides; belt and black cap embroidered with the letters W.S.R.C.C. In the case of the officers, the stripes on the pantaloons and the shoulder-knots were of gold lace. Uniforms made by Wilson of Shortmarket Street (C.M. 25/7/1857). On 14 August, 1857, 16 of the Corps, dressed in green(7) joined the Cape Royal Rifles at a Review on the Grand Parade. The low numbers were due to incomplete uniforms (C.M. 15/8/1857).

Three officers and 22 men attended a Review at Stellenbosch on 7 October, 1857 (CM. 10/10/1857) and, in December, some attended a concert at Simon’s Town in uniform (C.A. 30/12/1857).

In February, 1858, the Corps was called out to assist in the search for Kaffir prisoners who had escaped from Amsterdam battery. They travelled via Constantia Nek, Hout Bay and Camps Bay on the 5th and then to Cape Town (C.M. 10/2/1858). Attended a Review at Cape Town on 30 March, 1859 (C.A. 31/3/1859) and the funeral of Lt D. Reid, Bengal Engineers at Simon’s Town in June (C.A. 14/6/1859). In September, it was announced that the Corps would be remodelled as mounted rifles, and there would be a fresh election of officers (C.A. 20/9/1859). Corps attended a Review on 7 October (C.A. 11/l0/1859). On 24 July, 1860, the Corps paraded at Simon’s Town for Prince Alfred and acted as his escort on the following day (C.A. and CM. 27/7/1860), but were reported in August as being very weak and inactive (C.A. 9/8/1860). Attended a shoot on 23 November (C.A. 24/11/1860). Strength on 31 December, 1860, was 24, with the same officers as in 1857 (CC BB). Noted in 1861 as disbanded.

C.A.=Cape Argus. C.M.=Cape Monitor.
These newspapers were published three times a week at this period. The Monitor ceased publication in 1862.
CCBB or BB: The Annual Cape Colony Blue Book, records Colonial statistics, including, after 1859, Volunteer Returns at the end of the preceding year.
The early years of the Cape Royal Rifles (later DEOVR, DEOR and now Cape Town Rifles) and of the Cape Volunteer Artillery (later PAOCVA, PAOCFA, Regt. Tygerberg and now Cape Field Artillery) have been chronicled in published regimental histories, and have, therefore, been omitted from these notes.

1. It is arguable that the United Paarl Volunteers were a unit separate from the Paarl Rifle Corps but, in view of the limited period involved, to hold this view would be to split hairs.
2. Its existence was probably never officially recognised.
3. British Kaffraria was at this period a separate colony, and none of its Units was at the time part of the Cape Colonial forces. These two units are dealt with here for convenience only.
4. On exhibition in the Stellenbosch Museum is a sabre with blade engraved “STELLENBOSCH CAVALRY”.
5. Benjamin Duff, previously Ensign, Highland Rifle Militia, Scotland. l.ater an officer in P.A.O.C.V.A and O.C. Cape Town Highlanders 1895-1900.
6. The Africana Museum, Johannesburg, has this bugle (see Africana Notes and News, vol. 15, p. 215).
7. The difference between rifle-green and black is slight.

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